"It is possible to fly without engines. But not without knowledge and skills." 
Wilbur Wright.
"Never quit. Never give up. Fly it to the end."
- Chuck Aaron
"Believe you can and you're already half way there."
- Theodore Roosevelt.
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STUDENT RESOURCES

You will find, in the section below, a whole lot of information and aviation resources that will be useful during your pilot training but also once you get the precious blue booklet that says you’re officially a pilot. Useful links, documents, study help, quizzes, rules of thumb, convenient tools, etc… make sure you’re not missing anything that would be helpful for your study. If you are not quite sure where to search for a specific document or page, use the search field below.

Table of Contents

STUDY

You will find here all the useful links, documents, study and flight test guides to help you get prepared for the big day!

All subjects mentioned here are considered to be important to applicants for the Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane and may appear on the exam. Subject areas identified in bold and followed by a bullet (•) are essential knowledge areas that will be emphasized on the written examination.

Study GUIDES

The following Study and Reference Guides are meant to help you study and review in the prospect of the Transport Canada Written Test Examination. I suggest that you download your own copy and have always have it handy while studying.

The following Flight Test Guides are meant to make you familiar with the process of a flight test, the marking rules and the Flight Test Standards. Studying the Flight Test Guide corresponding to the test you will be taking will also make you more confident and efficient.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

Theory OF FLIGHT

  1. Bernoulli's Theorem
  2. Newton's Laws
Download Note sheet here.

  1. Lift •
  2. Drag - induced and parasite •
  3. Relationship of lift and drag to angle of attack •
  4. Thrust
  5. Weight
  6. Equilibrium
  7. Centre of pressure
  8. Centrifugal and centripetal
  9. Forces acting on an aircraft during manoeuvres •
  10. Relationship of load factor to stalling speed •
  11. Structural limitations •
  12.  Gust loads

  1. Pressure distribution about an aerofoil
  2.  Relative airflow and angle of attack •
  3.  Downwash
  4. Wingtip vortices
  5. Angle of incidence

  1. Propeller efficiency at various speeds
  2. Fixed and variable pitch
  3. Torque, slipstream, gyroscopic effect and asymmetric thrust

  1. Wing planform
  2. Area, span, chord
  3.  Aspect ratio
  4. Streamlining
  5.  Camber
  6. Laminar flow
  7. Dihedral, anhedral
  8.  Wash in, wash out
  9. Slots, slats
  10. Wing fences, stall strips
  11. Spoilers
  12. Flaps •
  13.  Canards

  1. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability •
  2. Inherent stability
  3. Methods of achieving stability

  1. Airplane axes and planes of movement
  2. Functions of controls
  3. Relationship between the effects of yaw and roll
  4. Adverse yaw, aileron drag
  5. Static and dynamic balancing of controls
  6. Trim and trimming devices

Last Update: 2020/04/23

METEOROLOGY

  1. Composition and physical properties
  2. Vertical structure
  3. Standard atmosphere
  4. Density and pressure
  5. Expansion and compression

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Units of measurement
  2. Station pressure
  3. Sea level pressure
  4. Pressure systems and their variations
  5. Effects of temperature
  6. Isobars

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Pressure altitude
  2. Density altitude
  3. Altimeter settings •
  4. Considerations when flying to/from high to low pressure or temperature areas•

  1. Heating and cooling of the atmosphere - convection, advection, and radiation •
  2. Horizontal differences
  3. Temperature variations with altitude
  4.  Inversions •
  5. Isothermal layers

  1. Relative humidity and dewpoint •
  2. Sublimation and condensation
  3. Cloud formation
  4. Precipitation
  5. The saturated and dry adiabatic lapse rate

  1. Lapse rate and stability
  2. Modification of stability
  3. Characteristics of stable and unstable air •
  4. Surface heating and cooling
  5. Lifting processes •
  6. Subsidence and convergence

  1. Classification
  2. Formation and structure
  3. Types and recognition •
  4. Associated precipitation and turbulence

  1. Fog formation •
  2.  Fog types (including mist) •
  3. Haze and smoke
  4. Blowing obstruction to vision

  1. Convection
  2. Mechanical
  3. Orographic
  4. Wind shear •
  5. Reporting criteria

  1. Definition
  2. Pressure gradient •
  3. Deflection caused by the earth's rotation
  4. Low-level winds - variation in surface wind •
  5. Friction
  6. Veer/back •
  7. Squall/gusts
  8. Diurnal effects
  9. Land and sea breezes
  10. Katabatic and anabatic effects
  11. Topographical effects •
  12. Wind shear - types, causes •

  1. Definition and characteristics
  2. Formation and classification
  3. Modification
  4. Factors that determine weather
  5. Seasonal and geographic effects
  6. Air masses affecting North America

  1. Structure
  2. Types •
  3. Formation
  4. Cross-sections
  5. Cold front weather •
  6. Warm front weather •
  7. Trowal and upper front

  1. In-flight - freezing rain
  2. Hoar frost
  3. Impact icing (engine)

  1. Requirements for development •
  2. Structure and development
  3. Types - air mass and frontal
  4. Hazards - Updrafts, downdrafts, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, hail and lightning •
  5. Squall lines

  1. Hazards

  1. Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) - decoding •
  2. Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)
  3. Pilot Reports (PIREP)

  1. Aviation Weather Information Services (AWIS) •
  2. Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS) •
  3. Flight Service Stations (FSS) and Flight Information Centres •
  4. Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS) •
  5. Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS) •
  6. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
  7. Significant In-flight Weather Warning Message (SIGMET) •

  1. Times issued and period of coverage
  2. Symbols and decoding
  3. Surface weather map
  4. Upper air charts - weather Information to 700 mb Level
  5. Prognostic surface charts

Last Update: 2020/04/23

AIR LAW

CANADIAN AVIATION REGULATIONS (CARs)
Some Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) refer to their associated standards. Questions from the CARs may test knowledge from the regulation or the standard.

101- INTERPRETATION

101.01 Interpretation

103 - ADMINISTRATION AND COMPLIANCE

103.02 Inspection of Aircraft, Requests for Production of Documents and Prohibitions

103.03 Return of Canadian Aviation Documents

103.04 Record Keeping

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

202.01 Requirements for Marks on Aircraft 202.26 Carrying Certificate of Registration on Board the Aircraft   Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

300 - INTERPRETATION

300.01 Interpretation

301 - AERODROMES

301.01 Application
301.04 Markers and Markings •
301.06 Wind Direction Indicator •
301.07 Lighting
301.08 Prohibitions
301.09 Fire Prevention

302 - AIRPORTS

302.10 Prohibitions
302.11 Fire Prevention

400 - GENERAL

400.01 Interpretation

401 - FLIGHT CREW PERMITS, LICENSES, AND RATINGS

401.03 Requirement to Hold a Flight Crew Permit, Licence or Rating
401.04 Flight Crew Members of Aircraft Registered in Contracting States other than Canada
401.05 Recency Requirements •
401.08 Personal Logs
401.26 Aeroplane - Privileges (Private Pilot Licence) •
401.45 Privileges (Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Over-the-Top)

404 - MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS

404.03 Requirement to Hold a Medical Certificate
404.04 Issuance, Renewal and Validity Period of Medical Certificate
404.06 Prohibition Regarding Exercise of Privileges
404.18 Permission to Continue to Exercise the Privileges of a Permit, Licence or Rating

600 - INTERPRETATION

600.01 Interpretation

601 - AIRSPACE STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION AND USE

601.01 Airspace Structure
601.02 Airspace Classification
601.03 Transponder Airspace •
601.04 IFR or VFR Flight in Class FSpecial Use Restricted Airspace or Class F Special Use Advisory Airspace
601.06 VFR Flight in Class A Airspace
601.07 VFR Flight in Class B Airspace
601.08 VFR Flight in Class C Airspace •
601.09 VFR Flight in Class D Airspace •
601.15 Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions
601.16 Issuance of NOTAM for Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions

602 - OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES

GENERAL

602.01 Reckless or Negligent Operation of Aircraft
602.02 Fitness of Flight Crew Members
602.03 Alcohol or Drugs - Crew Members
602.04 Alcohol or Drugs - Passengers
602.05 Compliance with Instructions
602.06 Smoking
602.07 Aircraft Operating Limitations
602.08 Portable Electronic Devices
602.09 Fuelling with Engines Running
602.10 Starting and Ground Running of Aircraft Engines •
602.11 Aircraft Icing •
602.12 Overflight of Built-up Areas or Open-Air Assemblies of Persons during Take-offs, Approaches, and Landings •
602.13 Take-offs, Approaches and Landings within Built-up Areas of Cities and Towns •
602.14 Minimum Altitude and Distances •
602.15 Permissible Low Altitude Flight
602.19 Right-of-Way - General •
602.20 Right-of-Way - Aircraft Manoeuvring on Water
602.21 Avoidance of Collision •
602.22 Towing
602.23 Dropping of Objects
602.24 Formation Flight
602.25 Entering or Leaving an Aircraft in Flight
602.26 Parachute Descents
602.27 Aerobatic Manoeuvres - Prohibited Areas and Flight Conditions •
602.28 Aerobatic Manoeuvres with Passengers
602.31 Compliance with Air Traffic Control Instructions and Clearances •
602.32 Airspeed Limitations
602.34 Cruising Altitudes and Cruising Flight Levels •
602.35 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in the Altimeter-setting Region •
602.36 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in the Standard Pressure Region •
602.37 Altimeter-setting and Operating Procedures in Transition between Regions
602.40 Landing at or Take-off from an Aerodrome at Night

OPERATIONAL AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

602.58 Prohibition
602.59 Equipment Standards
602.60 Requirements for Power-driven Aircraft •
602.61 Survival Equipment - Flights over Land
602.62 Life Preservers and Flotation Devices •
602.63 Life Rafts and Survival Equipment - Flight over Water •

FLIGHT PREPARATION, FLIGHT PLANS AND FLIGHT ITINERARIES

602.70 Interpretation
602.71 Pre-flight Information
602.72 Weather Information
602.73 Requirements to File a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary •
602.74 Contents of a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
602.75 Filing of a Flight Plan or a Flight Itinerary
602.76 Changes in the Flight Plan •
602.77 Requirement to File an Arrival Report •
602.78 Contents of an Arrival Report
602.79 Overdue Aircraft Report

PRE-FLIGHT AND FUEL REQUIREMENTS

602.86 Carry-on Baggage, Equipment and Cargo
602.88 Fuel Requirements •
602.89 Passenger Briefings

OPERATIONS AT OR IN THE VICINITY OF AN AERODROME

602.96 General •
602.97 VFR and IFR Aircraft Operations at Uncontrolled Aerodromes within an MF Area (Mandatory Frequency Area) •
602.98 General MF Reporting Requirements •
602.99 MF Reporting Procedures before Entering Manoeuvring Area •
602.100 MF Reporting Procedures on Departure •
602.101 MF Reporting Procedures on Arrival •
602.102 MF Reporting Procedures when Flying Continuous Circuits •
602.103 Reporting Procedures when Flying through an MF Area •

VISUAL FLIGHT RULES

602.114 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in VFR Flight in Controlled Airspace •
602.115 Minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions for VFR Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace •
602.116 VFR Over-the-Top •
602.117 Special VFR Flight •

RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS

602.136 Continuous Listening Watch
602.138 Two-way Radiocommunication Failure in VFR Flight •

EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS AND SECURITY

602.143 Emergency Radio Frequency Capability
602.144 Interception Signals, Interception of Aircraft and Instructions to Land
602.145 ADIZ
602.146 ESCAT Plan

605 - AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS

GENERAL

605.03 Flight Authority
605.04 Availability of Aircraft Flight Manual
605.05 Markings and Placards
605.08 Unserviceable and Removed Equipment - General

AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

605.14 Power-driven Aircraft - Day VFR
605.15 Power-driven Aircraft - VFR OTT (Over-the-Top)
605.16 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR
605.17 Use of Position and Anti-collision Lights
605.22 Seat and Safety Belt Requirements
605.24 Shoulder Harness Requirements
605.25 General use of Safety Belts and Restraint Systems •
605.28 Child Restraint System
605.29 Flight Control Locks
605.31 Oxygen Equipment and Supply
605.32 Use of Oxygen • 
605.35 Transponder and Automatic Pressure-altitude Reporting Equipment •
605.38 ELT
605.40 ELT Activation •

AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

605.84 Aircraft Maintenance - General
605.85 Maintenance Release and Elementary Work
605.86 Maintenance Schedule
605.88 Inspection after Abnormal Occurrences

TECHNICAL RECORD

605.92 Requirement to Keep Technical Records
605.93 Technical Records - General
605.94 Journey Log Requirements
605.95 Journey Log - Carrying on Board
605.97 Transfer of Records
606 - MISCELLANEOUS

606.02 Liability Insurance

  1. Definitions
  2. Reporting an aviation occurrence
  3. Protection of occurrence site •

  1. Air Traffic Services and Advisory Services •
  2. Communication procedures •
  3. Radar service - clock position system •
  4. ATC clearances and instructions •
  5. Wake turbulence separation
  6. Controlled and uncontrolled aerodrome operations •
  7. Mandatory (MF) and Aerodrome Traffic Frequencies (ATF)
  8. VFR en route procedures
  9. VFR holding procedures
  10. Operations on intersecting runways including (LAHSO) •
  11. Procedures for the prevention of runway incursion

Last Update: 2020/04/23

AIRFRAMES, ENGINES & SYSTEMS

 1 Types of construction

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Mechanical
  2. Hydraulic
  3. Electric
  Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Two and four-stroke cycle
  2. Methods of cooling
  3. Principle of the magneto
  4. Dual ignition •
  5. Exhaust systems
  6.  Auxiliary controls •
  7. Turbo-charging
  8. Effects of density altitudes and humidity
  9. Limitations and operations
  10. Instruments

  1. Theory of operation
  2. Fuel-air mixture •
  3. Mixture controls •
  4. Carburetor icing •
  5.  Use of Carb heat and its effects on mixture •

  1. Principle and operation
  2. Icing
  3. Alternate air

  1. Generator, alternator, and battery
  2. Lighting
  3. Ammeter and load meter
  4. Bus bars
  5. Circuit breakers and fuses
  6. Grounding and bonding

  1. Types, viscosity, grades, and seasonal use •
  2. Purposes •
  3. Methods of lubrication
  4. Venting
  5. Filters
  6. Oil Cooler

  1. Types - Colour and properties
  2. Density and weight
  3. Additives
  4.  Contamination and deterioration •
  5. Tank location
  6. Venting
  7. Fuel line - filters and drains
  8. Induction manifold
  9. Detonation - causes, and effects •
  10. Vapour lock
  11. Primers
  12.  Fuel management
  13. Fuel handling - fuelling aircraft

  1. Oxygen
  2. Vacuum

Last Update: 2020/04/23

NAVIGATION & RADIO AIDS

  1. MeridianPrime Meridia
  2. Longitude
  3. Equator
  4. Latitude
  5. Rhumb Line/Great Circle
  6. Variation
  7. Isogonal
  8. Agonic Line
  9. Deviation
  10. Track
  11. Heading
  12. Airspeed
  13. Ground Speed
  14. Air Position
  15. Ground Position
  16. Bearing
  17. Wind Velocity
  18. Drift

  1. VTA - Transverse Mercator Projection
  2. VNC - Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
  3. Topographical symbols •
  4. Elevation and contours (relief) •
  5. Aeronautical information •
  6. Scale and units of measurement •
  7. Locating position by latitude and longitude
  8. Navigation aids

  1. The 24-hour system
  2.  Time Zones and relation to longitude
  3. Conversion of UTC to local and vice versa

  1. Use of Aeronautical Charts
  2. Measurement of track and distance •
  3.  Map reading
  4. Setting heading - visual angle of departure
  5. Check-points and pin-points
  6. Use of position lines to obtain a fix
  7. Ground Speed checks and ETA revisions •
  8. Variation/deviation
  9.  True track/magnetic track
  10.  Determining drift by 10° lines
  11. Double track error method to regain track
  12. Opening and closing angles method
  13.  Visual alteration method of correcting to track
  14.  Diversion to an alternate destination •
  15. Return to departure point (Reciprocal Track) •
  16. Low-Level Navigation
  17. Dead reckoning (DR navigation), triangle of velocity
  18. In-flight log and mental calculations
  19. Procedures when lost •
  20. True, magnetic and compass headings
  21.  Indicated airspeed, calibrated airspeed
  22.  True airspeed, ground speed
  23. Compass errors
  24. Radio communications

  1. Heading and ground speed •
  2.  Pressure, density, and true altitudes •
  3. Indicated, calibrated and true airspeed
  4. Time, ground speed and distance •
  5. Fuel consumption and conversions •

  1. Factors affecting the choice of route •
  2. Map preparation
  3. Meteorological information
  4.  NOTAM
  5. Selection of check-points
  6. Fuel requirements •
  7. Weight and balance •
  8. Use of Canada Flight Supplement
  9. Documents to be carried in aircraft
  10. Flight Plans, itineraries
  11.  Flight log forms
  12.  Aircraft serviceability

  1. Characteristics of low, high and very high-frequency radio waves
  2. Frequency bands used in navigation and communication
  3. Reception limitations

  1.  Aircraft equipment
  2. Tuning and identifying
  3. Serviceability check
  4. Interpretation, orientation and homing
  5. Voice feature

  1. Aircraft equipment
  2. Tuning and identifying
  3. Serviceability check
  4. Interpretation, orientation and homing
  5. Voice feature

  1. Basic principles, use and limitations •

  1. Transponder •
  2.  Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) •
  3. VHF Direction Finding (DF) assistance •
  4. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)(primary and secondary)

Last Update: 2020/04/23

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

  1. Pitot •
  2.  Static •
  3. Anti-icing
  4. Alternate static - source, errors

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Principles of Operation
  2. Errors •
  3. Markings •
  4. Definitions (IAS/CAS/TAS)

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Errors
  3. Lag

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Errors

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Magnetic dip •
  3. Turning, acceleration and deceleration errors •
  4. Deviation
  5. Compass correction card
  6. Compass serviceability

  1. Principles of operation
  2. Inertia
  3. Precession

  1. Principles of operation •
  2. Errors •
  3. Limitations
  4.  Power sources

  1. Principles of operations •
  2. Errors •
  3. Limitations
  4. Power sources

  1. Principles of operations •
  2. Errors
  3. Limitations
  4. Power sources

  1. Loss of visual reference
  2. The control and performance instruments
  3. Instrument scan and interpretation
  4. Aircraft control
  5. Unusual attitudes and recoveries

Last Update: 2020/04/23

FLIGHT OPERATIONS

  1. Pilot-In-Command responsibilities
  2. Winter operations
  3. Thunderstorms avoidance
  4. Mountain flying operations
  5. Collision avoidance - use of landing lights
  6.  Runway numbering •
  7. Airport rotating beacon
  8. VASIS/PAPI
  9. Obstruction marking and lighting
  10. Units of measurements and conversion
  11. Radio communications
  12. Wheelbarrowing •
  13. Hydro-planning •
  14. Taxiing •
  15. Effects of wind and wind shear
  16. Side-slips •

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Take-off charts •
  2. Cross-wind charts •
  3. Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI) •
  4. Cruise charts •
  5. Fuel burn charts
  6. Landing charts •
  7. Performance (V) speeds - Va, Vno, Vfe, Vlo, Vne, Vs, Vx, Vy
  8. Effect of ice, snow, frost, slush, water on take-off and landing distance
  9. Effect of various runway surfaces on take-off and landing distance
  10. Upslope, downslope runway

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Effects of aircraft critical surface contamination
  2. Lift/drag ratio
  3. Effects of density altitude and humidity •
  4. Attitude plus power equals performance
  5. Normal, short, soft and rough field take-offs and landing
  6.  Ground effect •
  7. Best angle of climb (Vx) •
  8.  Best rate of climb (Vy) •
  9. Maneuvering speed (Va) •
  10. Normal operating limit speed (Vno)
  11. Never exceed speed (Vne)
  12. Maximum flap speed (Vfe)
  13.  Maximum gear operating speed (Vlo)
  14. Gliding for range
  15. Flying for range
  16. Flying for endurance
  17. Slow flight •
  18. Stalls •
  19.  Indicated and true stalling speed •
  20. Stall speed vs altitude
  21. Spins •
  22. Spirals •
  23. Recommended safe recovery altitudes
  24. Bank/speed vs rate/radius of turn
  25. Effects of change of weight or centre of gravity (CG) on performance •
  26. Use of aircraft flight manual and approved operational information
  27. Use of unapproved operational information.

  1. Terms - e.g. datum, arm and moment
  2. Locating CG •
  3. CG limits •
  4. Empty weight and gross weight
  5. Load adjustment
  6. Cargo tie-down and passenger loading
  7. Normal and utility category •

  1. Causes •
  2. Effects •
  3. Avoidance •

  1. Types of service available
  2. ELT (exclude categories) •
  3. Aircraft emergencies
  4. Survival - basic techniques

  1. Clean aircraft concept
  2. Frozen contaminants and removal techniques
  3. Cold soaking phenomenon
  4. Pre-take-off contamination inspection
  5. De-ice/Anti-ice fluids - Type I, II, III, IV
  6. Correct use of fluids

Last Update: 2020/04/23

HUMAN FACTORS

  1. Hypoxia and hyperventilation •
  2. Gas expansion effects
  3. Decompression (including SCUBA diving)
  4.  Visual scanning techniques •
  5. Hearing
  6. Orientation and disorientation (Including visual and vestibular illusions) •
  7. Positive and negative “G
  8. Sleep and fatigue
  9. Anaesthetics
  10. Blood donations

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. Personal health and fitness
  2. Diet and nutrition
  3. Medications (prescribed and over-the-counter) •
  4. Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)
  5. Pregnancy
  6. Heat and cold
  7. Noise and vibration
  8. Effects of smoking
  9. Toxic hazards (including carbon monoxide) •

Download PDF Note Sheet Here.

  1. The decision-making process
  2. Factors that influence decision-making •
  3. Situational awareness •
  4. Stress •
  5. Managing risk •
  6. Attitudes
  7. Workload - attention and information processing

  1. Controls and displays - errors in interpretation and control
  2. Errors in the interpretation and use of maps and charts
  3. Correct use of checklists and manuals

  1. Communications with maintenance personnel, air traffic services, and passengers
  2. Operating pressures - family relationships and peer group

Last Update: 2020/04/23

AVIATION PHRASEOLOGY

This NAV CANADA document is intended as a learning tool and reference guide to phraseology for all pilots flying within Canadian airspace. It has been created using resources including the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM) and Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel, as well as input from Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), Flight Service Specialists (FSS), Flight Information Centres (FIC), flight training units and commercial aviation leaders from across the country. Safety is a driving force in aviation. Communications are an important contributing factor to safety and many incidents and occurrences cite communications as a primary cause. It is easy to forget that the voice on the other end of the radio is a person too. If everyone begins with the same foundation of standard phraseology, there is less room for error or misinterpretation. Download The VFR Phraseology Guide here.

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Last Update: 2020/04/23

WEATHER TOOLS

Everything you need to make your decisions and plan your flights based on the right source weather information.

Weather Forecast & Observations

NAV CANADA's new internet flight planning system, CFPS,  makes it possible to file, amend, delay, and cancel your flight plans online. It basically does the same thing as the old system, but in a more friendly way with the possibility to file, amend, delay or cancel your flight plan.

The old Nav Canada's AWWS, Aviation Weather Web Site, is still available for flight planning, though:

Plugins go here...

Plugin goes here..

Last Update: 2020/04/23

FLIGHT PLANNING

P.O.H‘s and performance charts, navigation tools, rules of thumb… everything you need for planning your flight is here!

Last Update: 2020/04/23

TEST PREP

Getting ready for you written exam or flight test. How about a few quizzes or sample tests to ensure you’ll nail it?

Last Update: 2020/04/23

TC FILES

Check the Canadian Aviation Regulations, accident and occurrence reports, read the "TAKE FIVE" letter… 

Canadian Aviation Regulations References.

The following documents are the sources you should always refer to when studying regulations, standard procedures, etc…

Transport Canada has the responsibility and authority to propose and enforce laws and regulations to ensure safe, secure, efficient, and clean transportation.

In 1996 a revised set of aviation safety rules came into force in a consolidated and simplified format known as the Canadian Aviation Regulations (the CARs). The CARs are a culmination of several years of work, incorporating a new rule-making process and several new principles and recommendations.

The Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM) provides flight crews with a single source for information on rules and procedures for aircraft operation in Canadian airspace.

It has been developed to bring together pre-flight reference information of a lasting nature into a single primary document.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

About Training on your own aircraft.

Yes, you can train on your own aircraft and this is the whole point of this website… Before you make any final decision, make sure you have all the information about the legal aspect of things.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

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Last Update: 2020/04/23

About Medical Certificates.

If you are a student pilot, a pilot, air traffic controller, or aircraft engineer, you need to take a medical examination and get an Aviation Medical Certificate that proves you are fit for the job. You will find below all the requirements based on the pilot license you wish to obtain. If you need to find an CAME (Civil Aviation Medical Examiner)  to complete an aviation medical examination, search Transport Canada‘s list of approved Civil Aviation Medical Examiners.

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Last Update: 2020/04/23

About License Validations and Conversions.

The following conversion process is meant for license holders who need a Transport Canada license and already have a license from another country.
If you have an FAA license, please click here. The information I am providing here was taken out from the Transport Canada website and largely simplified. For more in-depth information, please visit Transport Canada’s appropriate website section.

Transport Canada will grant credits to foreign pilot license holders, provided that the foreign license is medically valid, and originates from a country that is a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). If the foreign applicant meets the applicable experience requirements, the holder of a Commercial or higher type pilot license in the airplane category, issued by a Contracting State of ICAO, shall be deemed to have met the ground school instruction requirement.

A foreign pilot licence of a visitor whose residence is outside Canada may be validated for flight training and  recreational purposes. The foreign pilot licence must be valid under the law of the issuing state and valid (with a current medica) for the privileges appropriate to the specific purpose. An applicant should apply for a Foreign Licence Validation Certificate (FLVC) before arriving in Canada.

The FLVC will be issued for a period of one year at which time the applicant may choose to renew it, or apply for a permanent Canadian Pilot Licence. Below is the process to apply for the FLVC:

  1. Fill out this form
  2. Include a copy of your licence , medical, passport, english test, and the form, and email it to plo-LPOpnr@tc.gc.ca
    It takes 4-5 days to process and then you can fly as pilot in command of a Canadian registered airplane.

Cost is $45 Canadian and may be paid by credit card, certified cheque, money order (cheques should be made payable to ‘Received General for Canada’).

Candidates who want a long term Canadian Private Pilot license are advised to convert to a full Canadian license.

An applicant who is the holder of a Private Pilot Licence issued by another country shall be considered to have met the ground school, written examination, and the flight test provided that they can show a license and logbook.

To convert:

  • Obtained a Canadian Class III medical or higher. It is important to do this first as you cannot do the written or flight test until you have been issued a medical certificate.
  • Candidate has obtained 90% in the written examination PSTAR. Use the online course to prepare.
  • Completed 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application
  • Has at least 45 hours total flight time, 12 hours solo, 5 hours instrument time, 3 hours dual cross country, and 5 hours solo cross country.
  • Completed an Aviation-Language Proficiency Test (Canadian or ICAO is acceptable)

Once the above has been completed, the candidate will be issued a license which will state it is based on a foreign license; to remove this statement from your license, the Private Pilot written examination and flight test must be completed.

To obtain a Canadian CPL -A, the following requirements must be met:

  1. Complete the medical examination requirements in accordance with the Medical Standards for Civil Aviation Personnel Licensing and be in possession of a Category 1 Medical Certificate. The medical cost is about $225, for a listing of doctors, go to Transport Canada approved doctors
  2. Proof that the experience requirement is met. An applicant should be able to provide Transport Canada with a logbook of their flight experience for review.
  3. Meet the knowledge requirements by successfully completing the following written examination: CPAER This exam costs $105 to write, study guides and books are about $150, ground school costs about $300, the best option is online ground school.
  4. Meet the skill requirement by successfully completing a practical Flight Test. Flight tests cost $350 plus the airplane rental. The amount of training or practice prior to the flight test depends on the pilot’s currency and ability. Click here for aircraft rental rates.
  5. Complete the standard administrative requirements such as submitting proof of foreign citizenship and age, provide the foreign license and logbook for evaluation, submit a license application form and pay the appropriate fee (This is conducted at a Transport Canada office); licensing fee is $80.

Also, fill out an Aviation Document Booklet application and bring in a passport picture (original) for the

Aviation Document Booklet. With a pilot who is current, proficient, and has prepared for the written prior to arrival, the above will take 1 week.

For people wishing to immigrate or work in Canada, contact Citizenship and Immigration Canada. We are not visa/permit experts.

An applicant wishing to obtain a Canadian Multi-Engine Rating, to be endorsed on the CPL-A, must meet the requirements set out in the CARs.

If you have 50 hours Pilot-in-Command on multi-engine airplanes or have met the standard of the State that issued the rating, in the preceding 12 months (based upon the date of application), then Transport Canada may issue your Canadian Multi-Engine Rating based upon your current Multi-Engine Rating.

However, if an applicant is unable to satisfy these requirements, they must demonstrate their skill through the successful completion of a practical flight test. The amount of training or practice prior to the flight test depends on the pilot’s currency and ability.

To obtain a Canadian Instrument Rating, the following requirement must be met:

  • An applicant wishing to obtain an Instrument Rating, to be endorsed on the CPL-A, must meet the knowledge and skill requirements set out in the CARs by successfully completing the written examination (INRAT), and successfully completing a flight test.

The amount of training or practice prior to the flight test depends on the pilot's currency and ability.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

About Your Written Exam.

The written examination is always a tough part to go through. But the most prepared you are, the easier you can make it and set yourself for success. Know what to expect and make sure you know all about it and how it goes if you happen to fail partially or totally.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

About Your Flight Test.

Knowing what to expect on your flight test is probably the most basic way to put yourself on the prevents bad surprises. Make sure you have all the information about how the examiner will handle your test, about all the exercises you will have to perform, their sequence, and about the marking scale.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

Aviation Accident Reports.

Aviation Accident Reports are a great tool to understand how situations happen and lead to accidents, and there’s always a lot to learn from others mistakes. All the aviation investigation reports are available on the Transportation Safety Board website.

Aviation Application Forms.

Being a pilot or student pilot implies interaction with Transport Canada and this usually happens through the use of forms that you have to download from their website. Here are some of the most common ones that you might need at some point whether you fly privately or commercially.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

The “TAKE FIVE” Transport Canada Flyer.

Transport Canada issues a smart short flyer on a regular basis for pilot education purposes. A good opportunity to refresh some basics and may be even learn something new sometimes.  “Take 5” minutes to read about better pilot decision, maintaining pilot proficiency and best practices in aviation.

If you’re ever tempted to take off in marginal weather and have no instrument training, read this before you go. If you decide to go anyway and lose visual contact, start counting down from 178 seconds... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

"Golf-Alpha-Bravo-Charlie cleared to land runway 05, caution maintenance crew on taxiway alpha, 100 feet from runway 05 ". A basic requirement for all pilots, air traffic controllers, flight service specialists, airport managers and airside vehicle operators is an ability to make decisions and exercise sound judgement... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The following are reminders for aircraft maintenance engineers (AME) prior to performing aircraft operational or functional checks. These do not, and are not meant to, replace a TC/FAA-approved aircraft flight manual, or the aircraft’s pilot operating handbook (POH) operation checklist. Prepared by System Safety, Atlantic Region... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Even on a clear day, it’s hard for pilots and controllers to see and track the many different-sized airplanes and vehicles moving at an airport. Add bad weather or darkness and the problem can get much worse. Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

When we consider that the change in atmospheric pressure is greater at the lower altitudes, where most of general aviation’s flying is done, we must take some time studying its effects... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Carburetor icing is a common cause of general aviation accidents. Fuel injected engines have very few induction system icing accidents, but otherwise no airplane and engine combination stands out. Most carburetor icing related engine failure happens during normal cruise. Possibly, this is a result of decreased pilot awareness that carburetor icing will occur at high power settings as well as during descents with reduced power... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Of the many threats to a successful safety program, one of the most common and persistent is complacency. Complacency in itself is a deceiving and unwarranted satisfaction with a given level of proficiency, which leads to stagnation and unknowing deterioration of proficiency... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Already in ancient times, Homer described the devastating effects of distraction in the Odyssey. To prevent his mariners from being distracted by the song of the Sirens and putting their boat in danger, Odysseus blocked their ears with wax. Nowadays, bus drivers use other strategies to avoid distraction. As a safety measure, and to avoid distracting them, passengers are asked not to speak to bus drivers... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Main power lines are easy to see, but when flying in their vicinity you must take the time to look for what is really there and then use safe procedures. Remember, the human eye is limited, so if the background landscape does not provide sufficient contrast then you will not see a wire or cable. Although hydro structures are big and generally quite visible, a hidden danger exists in the wires around them... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Float planes often operate in remote areas, on lakes and in open country. Use these tips to stay on track, and on time, during every stage of flight... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Flying VFR in the mountains calls for a few extras… Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The area around a forest fire is usually a hive of aviation activity that is there for one purpose—to snuff it out. It is definitely not the place for sight-seeing aircraft and those that venture near the fire do so at considerable risk. Air tankers and helicopters working the fire can be anywhere in the area, transiting to and from the fire, or picking up water from lakes and rivers... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

As pilots, we are in the business of managing and mitigating risks. Formation flying adds a new set of hazards to a flight by taking the decision-making ability away from the individual pilot and putting it in the hands of the lead aircraft. The lead aircraft, in turn, has to navigate, communicate, and think for the group, all while having to operate the aircraft with consideration to others in the formation. Military pilots and precision aerobatic teams mitigate this risk though specialized training, years of experience, and strict standard operating procedures (SOP).... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Prior to the first takeoff, make sure that the aircraft tool box contains rubber gloves, a bung wrench, filters, a standpipe and collar, a diaphragm and nylon valve repair kit, grounding cables, and enough tools to do the job. Make sure that you know how to use them... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

We often hear that "there are those who have landed wheels up, and there are those who will". Each year, pilots take their expensive, retractable landing gear-equipped aircraft and land with the wheels up. Why does this happen? How can we prevent it? Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

One of the facts of current life is that old computers and new software that gobbles up gigabytes of disk space and memory do not mix very well. The same problem exists when large databases are crammed into early-generation GPS receivers that have limited memory space. Navigation databases are continually growing, and in some cases can exceed the storage capacity of certain legacy receivers. This can seriously affect the operation of GPS receivers, and in some instances, it already has. The following three examples show what can happen, usually at a most inconvenient time of the flight... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) tell us that, in addition to having a valid licence or permit and a valid medical certificate, there are some things that pilots need to do every five years, every two years and every six months if they wish to exercise the privileges of their licences or permits... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Canada's search and rescue (SAR) crews are amongst the finest in the world. Together, they save hundreds of lives each year in the difficult and demanding role of rescuer. An "UNSAR" is an unnecessary search and rescue alert... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

As a wing or rotor generates more lift, pressure differences above and below increase, putting more energy into the vortices. So…for each aircraft, increased weight means stronger vortices. As an aircraft slows, the pressure difference above and below increases. So…as an aircraft slows, total vortex energy increases... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The risk of midair collision is greatest from takeoff to top of climb, and again from start of descent to landing. Don't assume you'll always be able to 'see and avoid.' You, the pilot, are responsible for your own separation and lookout. These tips will help... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Low flying is a killer. Before you even contemplate it, try this test. It may change your mind and save your neck... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

There are very few eye-catching sights like the Rocky Mountains, and most will enjoy their beauty from a safe distance. However, a small number of daring explorers enjoys climbing them, whether it be for personal challenge or simply for the thrill of it. The motivation behind mountain climbing, or any other extreme-risk outdoor activity such as cave diving, is not in question here; however, we can examine the role of pilots that end-up, possibly more often than they may want to, having to rescue those adventurous folks when they get hurt or lost... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Every pilot planning a flight knows that it is necessary to check for aviation weather information. An equally important part of flight planning is to obtain all pertinent NOTAMs. Which NOTAMs should be checked? Is it sufficient to verify only the NOTAMs for the departure and destination aerodromes? Some believe it is; however, it is not... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Will an aircraft fly if it's overloaded? Of course it will; in fact, it's a way of life (or death) for too many pilots. It's probably not hard to understand once having discovered that an aircraft can fly overloaded, that there will be opportunities and temptations to do just that. Of course, the margin of safety is reduced... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Review what to include in passenger safety briefings and how to address common issues than can arise. Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Before you start a maintenance task in aviation, use the following checklist to make sure you’re ready... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

As PILOT-IN-COMMAND of an aircraft you HAVE NO RIGHT... to endanger the lives of your passengers by... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Pilot reports (PIREPs) are the only direct source of information on cloud heights, turbulence, visibility, winds and icing between weather reporting stations and at some airports. They’re particularly important on flights below 10,000 feet... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The following is an excerpt from "A Pilot's Guide to Safe Flying" by Sander Vandeth, reprinted with permission. Preparation is the key strategy for avoiding icing and managing any inadvertent icing encounter. It should include an assessment of your knowledge, experience and proficiency with respect to flying in conditions conducive to airframe icing... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

A risk management study was conducted by Transport Canada, Pacific Region regarding high-density air traffic airspace in the Vancouver/Victoria terminal areas. As a result, pilots should be aware of the following... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The following procedures shall be followed by pilots of radio-equipped aircraft at uncontrolled aerodromes within an MF area and should also be followed by pilots at aerodromes with ATFs... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

The Aviation Safety Letter (ASL) is published quarterly. It includes articles that address all aspects of aviation safety, including... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

My FLARM, a traffic alert and collision avoidance system, suddenly warned me about conflicting traffic while I was flying my glider. I spotted a Commander 114 aircraft in straight and level cruise, close enough that I could count its rivets. This happened at 6,500 feet above ground level (AGL) and about 30 km from the nearest glider club... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Slinging accidents happen mostly to experienced pilots. Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Remote communications outlets (RCO) are remote radio transmitters/receivers established as an extended communications capability. They are used to... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Seen as the most spectacular part of a thunderstorm, thunderbolts do not pose a serious risk to aeronautics: "in a metal airplane, the crew is sheltered from the direct effects of an electrical discharge:"... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Finding the "time in your tanks"... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Most aircraft today have transponders, yet many pilots don’t turn them on. Remembering to use this piece of equipment could save your life and the lives of many others... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Although the odds of experiencing a ditching event are extremely low, pre-flight preparation and knowledge are paramount to survival should it happen. The following items will enhance your chance of a successful egress... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Winter brings changeable weather with fast-moving fronts, strong and gusty winds, blowing and drifting snow, and icing. This calls for good judgment, caution, changing some habits, and caring for your aircraft.... Download The TAKE FIVE LETTER here.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

COMS

Mastering aviation communications can be challenging. Everything you’ll need about VFR Communications is here.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

MISCELLANEOUS

Didn’t find it in the other sections? Well your last chance might be here… check it out!

Last Update: 2020/04/23

F.A.Q.

Lots of questions with lots of answers. Remember there’s no silly one in aviation. Help yourself!

Last Update: 2020/04/23

QUIZZES

Learn, practice, review. Repeat.

Last Update: 2020/04/23

Oops! Did I miss something?

Haven’t found what your were looking for?  Let me know which specific document or link you wish you could find here and I’ll do my best to add it. And of course, I will send it to you as soon as I get my hand on it!

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